The DNA Molecule Biology Study Material

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The DNA Molecule Biology Study Material

  • A chromosome is made up of long, coiled up molecule called DNA.
  • A DNA molecule is made up of thousands of building blocks called nucleotides. Each nucleotide is made up of three parts:
  • A phosphate group
  • A sugar group
  • One of four types of nitrogen bases
  • The phosphate and sugar group join, and the nitrogen base combines with the sugar group forming a nucleotide. The base pairs from two nucleotides are attracted together via hydrogen bonding. Although hydrogen bonds are weak but because they are thousands of nucleotides, together they form the double helix shaped DNA molecule in which the phosphate a sugar groups form the backbone. In this way a DNA molecule is similar in structure to a ladder in which the sugar and phosphate groups make the uprights and the nitrogen base groups the rungs.

There are four types of nitrogen bases or base groups.

  • Adenine (A)
  • Thyamine (T)
  • Cytosine (C)
  • Guanine (G)

The pairing up of these base groups is always the same;

  • Adenine (A) pairs up with Thyamine (T), andCytosine (C) pairs up with Guanine (G)

Animation summary

  • These are the four base groups in a DNA molecule.
  • Adenine (A)
  • Cytosine (C)
  • Guanine (G)
  • Thymine (T)

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