Cell Specialisation – Animals | Study Material

Cell Specialisation – Animals |  Study Material

Red Blood Cell

 

 Specific Function:

  • Contain haemoglobin which transports oxygen to other cells and around the body.

Specialised Feature:

  • Have biconcave shape for maximum surface area to allow more oxygen to be absorbed efficiently.
  • Biconcave shape also allows for a flexible framework which means cells can squeeze through the thinnest of capillaries.
  • Cells have a thin outer membrane allowing oxygen to diffuse through easily.
  • Have no nucleus so there is more room for oxygen to be carried in the cell and hence around the body.

Sperm Cell

Specific Function:

  • To fertilise the ovum (female egg cell).

Specialised Feature:

  • The tail of the sperm cell enables it to swim to the ovum and fertilise it.
  • The head is streamlined also to aid swimming
  • The head contains genetic information and a nucleus and has an enzyme to help penetrate the egg cell membrane to allow fertilisation.
  • The middle section immediately behind the head is packed with mitochondria to provide energy.

Nerve Cell

Specific Function:

  • Transmit electrical nerve impulses and so carry information from one part of the body to another ie from receptor to an effector.

 Specialised Feature:

  • Dendrites extend from the cell body to make connections with other neurones.
  • Have a long axon (nerve fibre) to carry the impulse to the target organ.
  • End plate forms a synapse with an effector (a muscle or a gland).

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